Animals

Treatment of mites in birds

Olivia Hoover | Chief Editor E-mail

Like many other types of pets, parakeets are prone to mites. There are three main types of mites that parrots usually find: red mites, scaly mites and feather mites. These types of mites can cause skin and feather irritation, scaly growths and restlessness, such as excessive grooming, or lethargy, depending on the type of mites. The fight against a mite infection can be a challenge, but through diligent cleaning and drug treatments, mites can be eradicated.

Bring your bird to a veterinarian if you suspect it has mites. Avian veterinarians can more easily determine that the health problem facing your bird is mites and not another medical condition. A veterinarian can also determine the exact type of mites, and may be able to prescribe a medical treatment for your parakeet.

Clean the parakeet cage completely. Scrub each part of the cage, including the bars and bottom, with hot water. Clean any hangers, bowls, toys or other decorations with hot water too.

Use a bird mite eradicator, as a spray treatment, in the cage and everything in it. Although these mite sprays are designed to treat the bird itself, they can also help eliminate pest infestations in the parakeet's habitat. Spray every part of the cage, including corners or cracks where mites can hide. Aerosols for bird mites can be purchased at pet stores.

Clean the area around the parakeet's cage, including the walls, floor and furniture near the cage. If the mites migrated to these areas, they will simply return.

Treat the parakeet with a mite medicine or specific spray for the type of mites your bird thinks it has. Flaky mites, one of the most common types of mites, are best treated with a product that contains moxidectin. Red mites can be treated with products containing carbaryl. Feather mites can be treated with an all-purpose mite spray. If your parakeet has been diagnosed with an internal mite, an internal pesticide can usually be used. Try using non-toxic medications or recommended by a veterinarian. Prevent the medication from entering the bird's eyes or nostrils.

Rub the olive oil in the areas of the parakeet that have been affected by the mites. Olive oil can help stifle mites, and can also sometimes relieve itching or irritation of the bird's skin. Avoid getting oil near the nostrils or the bird's eyes. Use this treatment only on the body or legs of the parakeet.

Hygiene of the installation.

Mites they hide during the night in cracks, recesses, and other diverse places. During the day they leave their hiding places to colonize their victims and suck their blood, which weakens them and even infect them with serious diseases.

It is obvious that maximum hygiene of the animal's habitat will reduce the presence of mites. Therefore, if the installation is metallic it will offer much less fissures and gaps where mites proliferate. Wood installations are very problematic to maintain. The daily cleaning of feces of the birds.

Mite Transmission Vectors

In a bird installation there are two infestation vectors Main: rodents and other birds. There is also another secondary transmission vehicle: boxes, egg cups, bags and other materials that come from suppliers for example.

Therefore, it is a priority move away the nests of other birds (sparrows, swifts, etc.), that exist attached to the place where we lodge our birds. We must also disable distance or close contact with any type of rodent.

We must check and disinfect boxes, egg cups, baskets, bags and all materials from other poultry facilities.

Mites become just 7 days in a plague that can plague any poultry farm, starting from a single infected specimen. The life cycle of the mites is so fast that in a week they pass from the egg stage to an adult specimen capable of reproducing.

Remove bird mites

The first step will be isolate infected birds in individual cages. If we allow healthy specimens to live with patients, we will be causing all our birds to suffer a mite infestation.

The second step will be to perform a thorough hygiene from the cage and the area in which they live. The most advisable thing will be to wash all the instruments we use (cages and utensils) in the dishwasher at high temperatures and get rid of those impossible to clean (nests, coconut hair, wooden elements.). It will also be very important to clean the floor with bleach and ammonia, wash the curtains at high temperatures, etc. Finally you must eliminate all products used for hygiene.

The next step will be to get products to treat our infected animals. We have already commented previously that mites have developed resistance against products that were previously effective. In any specialized store (or in veterinary centers) we will find products to prevent or eliminate mites at very affordable prices. The spray insecticides They are the most common. We will use the spray on doors and windows to prevent its reappearance.

In this case the advice from our vet It will be absolutely essential, because they will know the characteristics of the mites in the area and will have knowledge of the best products. Let us also not forget that the specialist is the only person capable of diagnosing that it is really mites. Improper treatment may not solve an infestation of mites in our birds.

To end this process we must keep the birds in treatment isolated 40 days until you are sure of its correct evolution.

Bird mite prevention

Once we have a guarantee that our birds are free of parasites and in a disinfected environment, we can take some preventive measures. The silica powder dehydrates mites. Scattering it in the most remote places will lessen the danger of appearing again.

If we elaborate cardboard traps impregnated with acaricides, during the night the mites will take refuge and die on contact with the acaricide. Feed with acaricidal additives have so far proved ineffective.

This article is purely informative, at ExpertAnimal.com we have no power to prescribe veterinary treatments or make any kind of diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian in case he presents any type of condition or discomfort.

If you want to read more articles similar to Treatment of mites in birds, we recommend that you enter our Deworming section.

Mites of Sarna and their ONLY Cure.

Stage II: Already the infestation is evident and recognizable in all areas of exposed skin, at this point of the condition the treatment will take effect at 30 or more days, after two applications of the treatment. (1 every 15 days)

Stage III: Beak and leg deformation begins, hindering the bird's motor ability, its ability to feed and even causing difficulty breathing, the treatment at this stage will take effect 45 days or more, after three or even four applications of the treatment ( 1 every 15 days) and there may be irreversible damage to the beak and legs, then I show an image that because of its rawness I have decided to place hidden, to see it, click on the icon -Show-.


The air sacs are organs that the birds possess, that fill and empty of air with each inhalation and exhalation. In them there is no gas exchange, this work, which consists of retaining oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide, is done by the lungs. Its functions are to increase the lightness of the bird, help with breathing and avoid an excessive increase in temperature caused by the flight. (Source)

The main mode of infection is direct contact with infested birds and occurs very quickly, the parakeets can be infested by contact with other parakeets or other psitacidae or by the proximity to wild birds, although their appearance is also related to hygiene problems, especially in nests.

  • Dose?: 1 single drop of 0.10% Ivermectin.
  • Where?: On the skin of the neck, pushing the feathers away.
  • How many days?: 1 single day.
  • Is it repeated daily?: NO, it is not repeated daily.
  • Does it repeat after 15 days?: Only in case of a very severe infestation.
  • Only the affected bird? No. The treatment should be applied to ALL the birds.

Oils, Creams, Atomizers, Powders and other Treatments.
Treatments with oils, and creams (whether common or acaric> ARE NOT RECOMMENDED, what these treatments do is to cover the pores of the skin in which he is housed and therefore suffocation, since they are organisms that need the oxygen to live, the treatment with oils will only eliminate the mites from the treated area, but remember that the scabies mite are scattered all over the skinand inside there may be mites from the air sacks, against which nothing creams and oil will do. Thus only Ivermectin ensures the cureIn addition, treatment with Ivermectin is less annoying for the parakeet and less dangerous, since the creams or oils need several applications for several days and an erroneous application can cover the nostrils and suffocate the bird.

Dusts and atomizers for direct application on the bird only remove the lice from the feather (Mallophaga) and do nothing against scabies mites and much less air sacks.

Warning : There are several products on the market indicated for scabies mites, based on Benzyl Benzoate, these types of products need to be applied on the affected area and are highly dangerous because the bird can consume it, get intoxicated and die.

In the rest of the countries we have to prepare the mixture. Ivermectin is available at any pet store or farm store since it is used in dogs, cats and farm animals (cows, pigs, chickens), but it is achieved in a concentration of 1% (10mg / ml) which is very high for a bird, and to apply it to the parakeets it is It is necessary to dilute it in a 1: 9 ratio using an excipient such as propylene glycol, food grade glycerin or isopropyl alcohol (common alcohol).

DO NOT, Ivermectin only acts on the aforementioned external mites of mange and feather, the only internal parasite that eliminates ivermectin is that of air sacs, but does not act on vermes such as lumbricoid ascaris, for that type of vermes is necessary to use Levamisole.

Ivermectin and Red Mites.
The "Dermanyssus Gallinae ", better known as "red mite" is a blood sucking parasite that infests the nests and recesses of the cages, to eliminate this deadly plague a general disinfection of the cages and their surroundings is necessary. Applying Ivermectin will NOT eliminate red mites, but performing the application will kill those red mites that bite the parakeets and prevent them from staying long on the skin by sucking their blood. This type of mites does attack humans.

Red Mite, after feeding - Source
Dose and poisoning.

Ivermectin poisoning and its signos: If by mistake the dose is exceeded it is possible to incur poisoning, let's look at its symptoms and the dose required to cause death.

Visible:

  • Excessive dilation of the pupil of the eye.
  • Lethargy.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Stupor. (they become even more scary)
  • Tremors
  • Loss of coordination of muscles, especially of the limbs.
  • Vomiting
  • Drooling
Less visible and not visible symptoms:
  • Depression.
  • Tachycardia. (pulse acceleration)
  • Blood pressure fluctuation.

Scabies mites

Are the Knemidocoptes Pilae or for all of us scabies mites.

They have a round shape, measure about 0.3mm and are translucent in case you still thought they were visible.

These acari take advantage of their extremely strong jaws for their size to pierce the skin of the bird or any bird, and dig under it to nest.

It is recognized because they leave a trail under the skin like the tunnels that make the moles, it is a thick dark crust with remains of their droppings and this becomes more evident in the most exposed areas of the bird, such as the eyes or legs .

The life cycle of this mite is relatively short, this would be a relief if it were not because it multiplies very fast.

Mites of the air sacs.

There are also Sternostoma Tracheacolum or the mites of the air sacs, these invade the trachea of ​​our parrots and their air sacs.

These bags help our parakeets to maintain the temperature, increase the lightness for the flight and help with the bird's breathing. Therefore this type of mite makes it difficult to breathe with what can end the life of our little bird.

Red Mites

As if that weren't enough we also have Dermanyssus Gallinae This is better known as red mite or bird mite.

This is a parasite that feeds on the blood by sucking it, and that infests the nests and hiding places of the cages. Attention these are fatal and contrary to the others if there can be cases of infection in humans.

Symptoms of scabies in parakeets

We go in parts and imagine that our Australian parakeet has problems. In any case our parakeet will be more restless and will be located near bars to scratch.

The mites in parakeets and symptoms this is the question

In the scabies mite they are identified because the corner commissure is of special interest to this parasite, which is why they dig with greater emphasis on that area, even deforming the beak, such a deformation situation can also occur in the legs . They will be identified by scales.

With respect to the mite of the air sacs, the symptoms are fatigue after making short flights, later the squeaking of the parakeet begins to become increasingly hoarse, then a forced breathing accompanied by movement of the tail resulting from the effort made by the effort will be appreciated bird to inhale, and finally you can join the effort to breathe a constant beep.

As for the red mites since they are annoying for our bird, it will feel annoying at night and flutter. Ideally, put a white cloth at the bottom of our cage at night so that in the early morning when the sun rises we can see tiny red dots on the cloth.

Scabies in parakeets is contagious?

Scabies reproduces rapidly among animals, imagine that your parakeet comes into contact with a wild animal.

Ideally, maintain proper cage hygiene, use objects where they cannot reproduce, and separate infested animals so that mange is not spread in Australian parakeets.

How to cure scabies and mites in Australian parakeets?

You can use oils with or without acaricides, these treatments cover the pores of the skin which suffocates the mite. But it will be difficult for you to access all the places of the little bird. Also this will not get rid of the air mites. Above all, take special care that your bird does not ingest any product.

It is best that you use ivermectin (Avimec or Scatt) as levamisole this will help you for any type of mite. So be careful with the doses that you can poison your poor parakeet.

Ideally, apply it behind the head so that it does not scratch the beak, and remove the feathers so that it comes into contact with the skin. In this way it will enter the blood and eliminate the mites. In principle, only one drop and one day is necessary but if you see that after 15 days your parakeet continues because it was quite infected, then follow the treatment. You should know that if the infestation is severe, your bird may have sequels for life.

What to do with an injured or injured parakeet

Before we begin, we want to comment and insist that The first thing you should do before an accident or suspicion of your parakeet's disease isgo to the vet. He is the qualified specialist who best knows what to do in each specific case.

Let's not try to medicate a sick bird beyond the "home remedies" suggestions below. Whatever kind of parakeets you have, if with your application we do not get quick results or if we have reason to think that our parakeet is seriously ill, let's immediately consult a veterinarian.

We will recognize that our bird is not well by its hollowed plumage, its loss of appetite, its apathy, its excessive thirst, its excessive flow of mucus, its tearing, its liquid and discolored stools and even perhaps some seizures.

Often a sick bird will react favorably to a change of food (see what parakeets eat), a lighter diet and a prolonged period of rest.

Perhaps the first thing to do when we have a sick bird in our hands is to turn your cage into a "hospital." This obviously means that we only have one bird. If we have two or more, we must proceed to isolate the sick person immediately.

To this end we can use any cage (even small size), since its permanence in it will only be temporary. We cover three of the sides with a thick cloth and install an electric bulb, properly protected, near the cage to provide additional heat.

To care for the bird properly (see how to care for a parakeet), let's do our best to keep the temperature at a uniform level of about 30 ° C. We can also provide a mild-type laxative, such as milk of magnesia, while we are considering further measures. To administer it, in a small amount, let's use a dropper.

Many diseases of parakeets can be cured using the modern antibiotics that are currently available for application to birds. Thus we have that there is a millet seed with a shell to which aureomycin has been added and that can be supplied to our bird, for a period of about fifteen days, replacing the one it eats regularly.

If a bird refuses to drink or eat, let's use an eyedropper to administer the medication. Let us give only one drop at a time to be sure that it will not choke, and always make sure that the medicine is at the outlet end of the dropper in order not to breathe air.

The bird can be forced to eat using the same system and using honey diluted in water as food. About ten drops a day, one at a time, is enough. Let us introduce, for this purpose, the dropper end on the side of the beak.

A special diet must be adapted for invalid birds. If the patient shows willingness to eat, let's provide only easily digestible foods: semi-ground oatmeal, bread and milk with corn syrup or honey.

Broken bones in budgies

If possible, wrap the bird's body with a gauze bandage to immobilize it and take it to the vet. If we consider ourselves competent enough to solve the problem by ourselves, follow the instructions below.

Budgerigar with a broken wing

If it is a broken wing, place it in its natural position and so that the ends of the fractured bone are in contact. Then we proceed to wrap the body of the bird, including the other wing, with several turns of gauze about 2.5 cm wide and fix it on its end with tape. Let's leave this bandage for a period of about three weeks.

If what has been broken is a leg, let's make a small plaster mold, which we can find in commerce. To carry out this work we must have the help of another person to keep the leg extended and with the ends of the broken bone in contact. Apply a thin layer of plaster to the leg.

When it begins to harden, we put in the dough half of three flat sticks and add a little more plaster. Next, wrap a narrow strip of gauze around the dough to fix the splinting and keep the bird still until the plaster has hardened completely.

We must leave the splinting on for a period of at least three weeks. At the end of this period we carefully remove the plaster, for whose work we can use vinegar, as it dissolves it.

Poisoning

Knowing if a parakeet is sick from poisoning is complex (how to know if a parakeet is sick). But if we are sure, applying a quick treatment is important in these cases. We will administer to our bird a laxative. Four or five drops of milk of magnesia, given with a medical dropper, is effective due to its alkaline composition as it is an antidote against several acid-type toxins.

Oxygenated water (hydrogen peroxide) also gives good results if we do not know what the ingested toxic is, so dilute it in water to equal parts. If, on the contrary, we know what the ingested toxic is, we will administer a few drops of its known antidote diluted in water.

Paint, especially that containing lead or flaxseed oil, is a frequent cause of intoxication. The same can be said of the rodenticides and the remains of insecticides that remain in vegetables that have not been washed or come from sprays on domestic plants.

After applying a first aid treatment to our bird, let's call our veterinarian, let us know our opinion about the toxic we believe has been the cause of the problem and follow his instructions.

Let's cut the feathers around the wound and leave it exposed. Let's clean it gently with hydrogen peroxide. If the bleeding appears excessive or the wound is large, let's take the bird to our veterinarian. The cuts heal in about eight days. Let's keep our bird in a warm and comfortable place.

Broken feathers

There may come a time when we want to eliminate a broken feather in the tail or in a wing. Let's not hesitate to pull her. It will detach without pain by a strong pull. After that, a new pen will be born to take its place. If the barrel is not pulled at the same time when the pen is pulled, no new one will be developed until the time of the molt.

State of shock

In such cases our bird will remain prostrate on one of its sides on the floor of the cage. Let's hold it around with our hands to transmit heat to your body. We can administer one or two drops of hot coffee, strong tea or whiskey with an eyedropper, one drop at a time, to act as a stimulant.

Sudden chills and heat prostration

A sudden change in temperature can cause chills to our bird or a room in which a high level of heating predominates and is poorly ventilated, it may be the cause of prostration. Let's not go from one extreme to another.

A bird that suffers chills needs heat but not too much, and once it is exposed to an excessively high temperature it needs to be cooled but not suddenly.

Let us gently heat in our hand the bird that shivers cold and that suffers from excessive heat, place it in an airy spot (but without currents). Drinking cold water will also help to reduce its temperature.

Parakeet respiratory diseases care

There are several that exist but we are not in a position to distinguish from each other. They affect parakeets with symptoms very similar to that of a human cold: sneezing, mucus, sinusitis, lethargy, shortness of breath and wheezing.

Let's "hospitalize" the bird and apply the antibiotic treatment described above. Let's tempt him to eat or force him in the manner previously described.

If antibiotics are not available, give four or five drops of whiskey diluted in a tablespoon of milk. If your bowel movements are liquid, we must use the treatment indicated for diarrhea.

Colds: Colds generally recognize as origin an exposure to an air current. A bird can withstand cold temperatures but never a current of air. If he catches a cold he will cup his plumage, partially close his eyes and appear apathetic.

If the cold is very strong, it can cause your eyes to darken significantly, which will disappear as you get better. Keep our parakeet under temperatures ranging between 30 and 32 ° C 24 hours a day.

Let's provide only warm and pure water. Let it rest in its cage. Special vitamin tonic for birds is a great help.

Pneumonia: A parakeet affected by pneumonia will show all the symptoms of a cold accompanied by wheezing and gasping for air. Let's keep it under a very warm temperature (about 30 ° C at all times). Let's use the same treatment as for colds.

Treat diarrhea

Sometimes diarrhea is simply a disease in itself, while in others it is the symptom of something more serious. The bird will be apathetic, it will hollow out its feathers and those it has around the anal opening will appear dirty as a result of its liquid depositions.

In this regard it should be noted that in normal circumstances the stools are semi-solid but if they have a greenish color and a liquid appearance, and also the feathers around the anal opening are very dirty, then we must begin treatment immediately.

Let's stop providing vegetables and fruits. Let's hospitalize it, let's keep it warm. Let's administer a couple of drops of bismuth milk several times a day, which we can do either with the help of an eyedropper or mixing it with food. Whole or semi-ground oats that are offered commercially, mixed with boiled milk, will also contribute to their recovery.

Constipation

Symptom of this ailment is apathy along with hard and scarce bowel movements. Let us increase the quantity. Let us always ensure that the oil is at the outlet end of the dropper in order not to blow the bird air. Exercise also helps. What can also happen is that the anal opening is blocked by a mass of stool and feathers. If so, it can be softened and removed using warm water and some cotton.

It is an instinctive action for parakeets to regurgitate food to feed their chicks. Sometimes they try to do the same with the "bird friend" they see in a mirror. Do not worry unless this happens frequently or is accompanied by other symptoms. If you expel shell-free seeds from your crop and they smell bad, let's try to give you a pinch of Epsom salts through the drinking water.

Buckle Lock

The crop is a small food store that stores these until the gizzard is in a position to be crushed. Sometimes it becomes a compact dough consisting of dry food, yarn, paper, etc.

When this occurs, mineral oil should be provided and a gentle massage of the crop should be performed. If this does not work, we must go to the veterinarian for surgery.

Ovarian block

This, of course, only happens to the female when she cannot eject the eggs. We deal with it in our post how to raise parakeets.

Sometimes it is possible that a bird that seems to enjoy excellent health suddenly collapses on the floor of the cage, shakes a bit as if it had just broken a wing and dies.

This is often the result of an excess of food and / or a poor diet, in particular a lack of vitamin E, which can be provided by giving the bird wheat germ oil.

Problems linked to the change

The molt is a natural process of replacing the feathers. The old ones fall and new ones are developed to take their place. Normally, the period of change is related to the duration of the day and the temperature changes of the various seasons.

However, we must bear in mind that our parakeet is subject to the action of artificial light and different temperature variations. Therefore it is possible to suffer the change at any time, regardless of the season.

Let's make sure that it feeds well during this period and remember that a special meal for such a circumstance will contribute to the new feathers being developed with a bright color.

During a period of normal molting, the new feathers must replace the old ones at a constant rate. If our bird has spaces without them and / or loses its ability to fly, this is not normal and requires investigation.

French Muda: It is a situation that is not natural and in which the bird suffers a constant change, losing old feathers and developing new ones, but not appearing at any time with a stylized line and with its complete plumage as it should under normal circumstances.

The cannons are soft, easily detach and a dark toned substance is visible inside. There are several theories in this regard but none of them has been conclusive, as regards what gives rise to the French molt.

Poultry farmers agree, however, on the advisability of frequently providing a wide variety of supplementary and special foods (among the latter, for example, egg yolk biscuits).

The plucking of feathers

Some birds, similar to children who eat their nails, get into the nervous habit of plucking their own feathers and, in some cases, eating them. Esta costumbre no debe confundirse con la que normalmente le lleva a arrancarse las que ya se encuentran semidesprendidas.

Los puntos de la piel que quedan al descubierto pueden ser tratados aplicándoles vaselina. Probemos a mantener el pájaro en un ambiente ligeramente más fresco. Proporcionémosle algo que lo mantenga ocupado (quizás un mayor tiempo de vuelo).

Tratar ácaros y piojos

El periquito, con su constante alisado de las plumas, rápidamente elimina estos parásitos, pero a nosotros corresponde mantener la jaula limpia. Los ácaros rojos, que constituyen un parásito muy corriente entre los que pueden infectar a nuestro pájaro, se esconden en las grietas o en el fondo de la jaula y salen de noche para atacarle.

Si sospechamos su presencia, coloquemos un pedazo de tela blanca sobre la jaula y examinémosla detenidamente a la mañana siguiente para comprobar si hay en ella pequeños puntos rojos. Si el resultado es afirmativo, ataquemos en dos frentes, es decir, eliminemos los parásitos presentes en el pájaro y exterminemos los que moran en la jaula.

A tal fin saquemos al pájaro de ésta y apliquémosle uno de los muchos polvos antiparasitarios que existen en el mercado. Dicha aplicación deberá efectuarse directamente al cuerpo, especialmente debajo de las alas, haciendo que penetre y se distribuya uniformemente por todo el plumaje.

Los atomizadores son también efectivos y de más fácil utilización ya que eliminan la necesidad de sujetar al pájaro durante la operación. En el caso de la jaula deberemos valernos asimismo de polvos o atomizadores especiales contra ácaros.

Apliquémosle previamente queroseno con un pequeño pincel en todos los puntos en que exista la posibilidad de que se escondan los parásitos limpiémosla con agua hirviendo después desinfectémosla.

Asegurémonos, por último, de que se halla completamente seca ante de volver a introducir el pájaro e ella. Sustituyamos todas las pe chas por otras nuevas. Hablando en términos generales cabe decir que cualquier aerosol para la erradicación de tales parásitos resulta satisfactorio.

Un avance bastante reciente lo constituye el uso de repelentes de larga duración contra insectos. Este tipo de productos se ofrecen dentro de pequeños envases de plástico o metal, los cuales, una vez eliminado el precinto, se cuelgan en el interior de la jaula. De ellos se desprende un vapor invisible e inodoro que repele los insectos y cuya duración puede llegar hasta los tres meses.

Tratar parásitos internos

Su presencia es rara entre los pájaros enjaulados que jamás se han visto expuestos a posibles focos de infección. Entre tales parásitos cabe citar las lombrices, la tenia, los tremátodos y otros varios de índole diversa.

Solamente un veterinario se halla en condiciones de detectarlos y prescribir la medicación adecuada. Si observamos algo sospechoso en las deposiciones de nuestro pájaro, llevemos una muestra de las mismas a nuestro veterinario para que proceda a un examen microscópico.

Obstrucción del conducto sebáceo

El periquito se alisa el plumaje con ayuda de una materia sebácea que segrega una glándula especial que se encuentra en la base de la cola. Algunas veces el pezón de salida de esta glándula se bloquea.

Si éste es el caso, apliquémosle un suave masaje con un copo de algodón embebido en agua caliente y después presionemos hacia afuera al objeto de eliminar la obstrucción y hacer posible que la materia sebácea pueda fluir de nuevo.

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