Animals

Why do dogs drool? The most common causes

Saliva is produced in glands of the mouth and helps to chew and swallow food.

Excessive salivation in the form of drip, filament or foam around the mouth is not normal

Excessive salivation, accompanied by mouth lesions and fever is a sign of illness.

Objectives of this lesson

Studying this lesson you will know:

1. Recognize excessive salivation.
2. Recognize the choked animal (food that clogs the esophagus).
3. Distinguish the various types of mouth injuries.
4. Detect bladders or blisters of the mouth.
5. Treat mouth problems.

Excessive salivation, accompanied by masticatory movements, may be due to several causes. Open the animal's mouth and check the cause of the problem. It may be due to:

• Foreign bodies (thorns, nails, pieces of feed) in the mouth or between the teeth.
• Problems and abscesses of the teeth.
• Poisonings.
• Foods that clog the esophagus and cause choking.

Choking (I think of the esophagus)

This occurs when large or dry pieces of food clog the esophagus. It is common in cows and can happen in horses. The cause of the obstruction must be eliminated.

Drowning in ruminants causes swelling (tympanism). The best way to eliminate the obstruction is to push it down and in the direction of the mouth on the outside of the left side of the neck.

Another way is to squeeze the roof of the mouth tightly with your fingers to make the animal open it, then pouring a small portion (10-20 ml) of oil into it, or pass a stomach or stomach tube through the esophagus (see Annex 3).

Salivation accompanied by lesions of the mouth

Sometimes an animal produces an excess of saliva that drips from the mouth or forms foam. This is due to an injury to the mouth, tongue or lips. Mouth injuries can be:

• Red spots and blisters (skin bladders filled with liquid) in the mouth.
• Skin detachment from certain areas exposing a red tissue.
• Inflammation of the tongue.

Excessive salivation, oral lesions and fever are symptoms of infectious diseases, so the veterinary officer should be called upon to examine the animal immediately.

Rinderpest and foot and mouth disease (see Lesson 25) produce excessive salivation and mouth lesions. Other diseases also give these symptoms.

Cure oral lesions with an antiseptic (see R3, Annex 1). Your veterinarian may recommend antibiotic injections for several days.

It is important to know the body temperature to check the health status of an animal. If you suspect that the animal is sick use the thermometer to take the temperature.

If the body temperature is higher than normal (see Lesson 4) the animal has a fever. Fever is one of the most common symptoms of infectious diseases.

A small increase in temperature is called a light fever and a large increase in high fever. When the body temperature is lower than normal, the animal has hypothermia that can be caused by hunger, bleeding or dehydration.

Fever, like diarrhea, causes the animal to lose water and salts.

Objectives of this lesson

Studying this lesson you will know:

1. When an animal has a fever.
2. Why the fever.
3. What to do with an animal with a fever.

You should know what the healthy animal looks like (see Lesson 5). If you suspect that an animal is sick, talk to its owner or caregiver to try to find out how much you can about it. Examine the animal and take the temperature with the thermometer.

If the temperature is higher than normal, the animal has a fever. The magnitude of the temperature rise indicates the severity of the fever.

The normal temperature of the sheep is 39 ° C. If the temperature is 4041 °, the sheep has a slight fever. If it is between 41.5 and 42 ° C, the fever is high. The temperature of 38 ° C is subnormal (hypothermia).

In all animals an increase of 1-2 ° in normal temperature corresponds to a slight fever, while any temperature that exceeds the normal temperature by more than 2 ° C is a high fever.

Cause of fever

Fever, especially discharge, is due to an infectious disease caused by germs (see Lesson 6). When some types of germs penetrate the body of a healthy animal, it gets sick. Animals become infected with germs present:

• In polluted air.
• In dirty water or food in poor condition.
• In the stables of dirty animals whose feces and urine have not been cleaned.
• In the milk, saliva, urine and blood of sick animals.
• For bites of flies and wounds.

Fever treatment

If the animal has a slight fever, separate it from others and keep it in a shaded and cool place, with plenty of fresh, clean water. If you have a mild fever and do not have diarrhea, constipation, discharge from the eyes or mouth, or any other symptoms of illness, you should be given good food. Watch it a day or two to see if the fever goes down.

If the animal has a high fever or diarrhea, secretions or other symptoms of illness, give it only clean fresh water and if possible go to the veterinarian. If you cannot contact the veterinarian, give him an antibiotic or sulfa drug by injection or by mouth, for at least three days to destroy the germs (see R6, R7, R9, R10, Annex 1).

Watch closely during the following days if the animal improves. If you do not return to normal (eat, drink and walk) you should go to the veterinarian to discover the problem and treat it.

The cough is a strong and forced expiration (air outlet) through the mouth.

Sneezing is a short and forced expiration of the nose.

Respiratory difficulties and very rapid breathing are disorders of the respiratory system that do not occur under normal conditions.

Respiratory problems, accompanied by fever and runny nose, are very bad symptoms and mean that the animal suffers from an infection.

Objectives of this lesson

Studying this lesson you will know:

1. When the animal has a cough.
2. If you sneeze.
3. If you have a runny nose.
4. Treat animals with breathing disorders.

A cough is a strong and forced expiration (see Lesson 3) due to:

• Infectious diseases of the lungs or trachea.
• Lung parasites.
• Fluid or mucus in the lungs and trachea.
• A concoction (medicine) that has gone to the lungs instead of the stomach through the esophagus.

Pigs can cough if they are given powdered feed.

Sneezing is a short and forced expiration of the nose. It may be due to an infection inside the nose or the larvae of the nasal fly (see Lesson 64).

Infection of the lungs or trachea determines respiratory difficulties in the animal. Breathing may produce noise. The blockage of the trachea by a foreign body or an abscess will also cause respiratory difficulties.

Accelerated (rapid) breathing

Accelerated breathing is due to an infectious disease and is accompanied by fever. It is easily seen by observing the movements of the chest when the animal breathes.

If an animal coughs and has no nasal discharge or fever should suspect, as a cause of the problem, in a foreign body, such as the presence of dust in the trachea or lungs, or lung worms. Check if there is any foreign body or, if necessary, apply the treatment against lung worms (see R11, R12, Annex 1).

The cough that is accompanied by fever and discharge from the nose and eyes is due to an infection. Use the veterinarian and if this is not possible, give the animal an antibiotic or a sulfa drug (see R6, R7, R9, R10, Annex 1) for three or more days.

Sneezing in the absence of fever is due to a foreign body in the nose, or the presence of nasal fly larvae. An animal with a foreign body or abscesses in the trachea will have difficulty breathing, but will not develop a fever.

Lesions and infections of the eye and vitamin deficiencies can cause blindness in animals. Blind animals do not survive because they cannot find food.

A disorder limited to one eye is due to a wound or a foreign body. When the evil affects both eyes, and is accompanied by fever, it means that the animal suffers from an infection or a serious illness. If there is blindness in both eyes, but without fever, you should suspect a vitamin deficiency, since it may be due to deficiencies of vitamins A or B.

Objectives of this lesson

Studying this lesson you will know:

1. What is the structure of the animal's eye.
2. The causes of eye deficiencies.
3. The treatment of eye disorders.

The eye is important for the survival of the animal. The surface of the eye similar to glass is called the cornea. The eye is protected by eyelids that can close.

If an eye is red, inflamed and watery it may be due to:

• A foreign body, such as sand, dust or a seed.
• To an injury or cut of the cornea.
• To an infection from flies or dirt.

If both eyes are inflamed, red and watery and the animal may not even open them, it is a sign of infection. You should observe your body temperature to check if you have a fever. Many diseases cause eye problems.

A blind animal is easily discovered, as it stumbles upon objects. The blind animal is hard to care for.

To check the blindness make a sudden (rapid) movement with your hand, in the direction of the animal's face but without touching or creating a current of air that you can perceive. If the animal does not blink it is blind.

Vitamin A, found in fresh, silage and hay of good quality, is important for good vision. If animals only feed on forage or dry grass in dry areas, they develop night blindness and cannot see in the dark or at night.

To treat eye conditions you must:

• Ask someone to hold the animal to check if it has any foreign body (dirt, sand) in the eye.
• With clean hands and using the thumb and forefinger open the animal's eyelids and gently squeeze inward.
• Use a clean soft cloth to remove the foreign body from the eye.

If you have difficulty removing the foreign body:

• Place a drop of olive, castor or liver oil in the eye to help remove dirt.
• Put some sugar in the eye, this will make the eye cry and the tears will wash it.

Use eye drops or ointment to treat red and swollen eyes (see R23, Annex 1).

If you cannot open the eyelids of an inflamed eye, do not force them, see a veterinarian. If both eyes are swollen, red and painful, the animal will have a fever. Take it to a shady place, away from others. This is a symptom of infectious disease and the animal must be treated with antibiotics.

Vitamin A and B1 deficiencies are avoided by supplying silage animals or complementary foods in the dry season. These vitamins can also be injected (see R28, Annex 1) to treat deficiencies.

A wound is a cut or tear of the skin. All wounds bleed, are painful and can be infected with germs or larvae.

Sometimes an animal bleeds intermittently from injuries caused by parasites, from accidents and, in females, from birth problems. This is internal bleeding (from the inside).

Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. If too much blood is lost, the body does not receive oxygen and the animal dies.

All wounds should be cleaned carefully and the bleeding stopped.

Objectives of this lesson

Studying this lesson you will know:

1. The causes of the wounds.
2. First aid for wounds.
3. How to stop bleeding.
4. What are internal hemorrhages.
5. Treat old wounds.
6. How to treat the umbilical cord and castration wounds.

Wound First Aid

Animals can be injured with the horns and bites of other animals, with thorns and sharp objects, such as glass, wires and nails. These wounds become infected due to the living conditions of the animals.

If there is not too much bleeding, clean the wound with salt and water. Cut the hair or wool from the area around the wound. If you have a disinfectant (see R1, Annex 1), use it to heal the wound. An antiseptic can be used to keep the wound clean (see R5, R8, Annex 1).

Hemorrhage of small and superficial wounds can be stopped by pressing hard on the wound with a clean cloth. If blood refluxes through the cloth, place another one on top without removing the first one. When the bleeding has stopped, clean and treat the wound.

You should turn to the veterinarian to treat large and deep hemorrhagic wounds. If you cannot stop the bleeding by pressing with the cloths, use a tourniquet.

A tourniquet is a piece of twisted cord or cloth that is tied around a blood vessel. It can only be used on the wounds of the limbs and tail.

Do not use tourniquet around the neck.

Tie the cord around the limb, above the wound. To tighten it, insert a stick under the cord and turn it tight until the bleeding stops. Do not leave the tourniquet for more than 20 minutes. Release it slowly and if necessary tie it again. Clean and treat the wound after the bleeding stops.

Hemorrhage for a broken horn

If an animal's horn breaks, try to stop the bleeding by placing a clean cotton or cloth on it and keep it there by selling it. A transient tourniquet around the base of the horn will stop the bleeding.

If it is not possible to stop the bleeding, apply directly to the affected area and for half a minute a red-hot metal to cauterize the horn and blood base. This should be repeated in the different hemorrhagic areas of the horn and the surrounding skin.
Remember, do not leave the tourniquet for a long time. If the bleeding continues, loosen it every 20 minutes, tightening it again.

Hemorrhage for a broken horn

This type of bleeding is serious. Can occur:

• In the lungs and intestine, after an accident.
• In the ovary matrix after delivery.

The symptoms of internal bleeding are weakness of the animal and increased respiratory rate. An animal with internal bleeding will be placed in a calm and temperate place and given water with a handful of salt. Do not try to force him to walk, as he could collapse and die. You should go to the veterinarian if you suspect that the animal is suffering from internal bleeding. In many cases, you can't do anything to stop it. It is better to sacrifice the animal.

In mares and donkeys, after childbirth, there may be vaginal bleeding. If you cannot count on the help of the veterinarian, plug the vagina with a clean cloth or towel, previously boiled in water and already cold. Leave the towel in the vagina for 1 or 2 days and then remove it.

If the wounds are not treated, the larvae infest them causing more damage.

In some cases the wound can gangrene. It gets worse and turns black emitting a very disgusting smell. Ask your veterinarian for help immediately.

Operational injuries

Operations performed on animals leave wounds. They are produced by:

• Castration.
• Tail cutting (unraveling).
• Desornar (remove horns).
• Cut the umbilical cord immediately after delivery.
• Cut when shearing sheep.

All wounds should be cleaned with disinfectant (see R1, Annex 1). If you have a wound powder (see R5, R8, Annex 1), use it daily until it heals.

Infected wounds and operations become inflamed with pus. The inflammation is soft to the touch, these wounds, called abscesses, must be removed from the pus, which is done by removing the skin with a knife or sharp scalpel so that the pus goes out through the cut. Abscesses are treated daily to keep the drainage incision open, squeeze the pus out and wash the wound with clean water or disinfectant liquid (see R1, Annex 1). Animals should be given daily and for 3-5 days an antibiotic or sulfa drug by injection or orally (by mouth) (see R6, R7, R9, R10, Annex 1).

If a bone breaks and there is no wound or bleeding, it is called a closed fracture. If the bone breaks and there is bleeding it is called an open fracture.

Animal bone fractures are difficult to treat, especially in large ones.

It can successfully treat fractures of the legs of young and small animals.

You should go to the veterinarian to treat all kinds of broken bones.

Objectives of this lesson

Studying this lesson you will know:

1. What are the causes of fractures.
2. Symptoms of broken bones.
3. The treatment of fractures.
4. Dislocation of the bones.

Causes of fractures

A fracture is a broken bone. Any of the bones in the body can break, but the ones that do it most commonly are those of the limbs.

The fractures of an animal may be the result of blows received, a fall, the introduction of a limb in a hole or the fight between animals.

Recognition of a broken bone

The fracture occurs abruptly, it is not like a disease that needs time to develop. Sudden pain and abnormal movement (lameness) are an indication of a fracture.

The animal avoids using that part of its body where the fracture lies. You can hear the sound (cracking) of the edges of the broken bone when the animal moves. The area around the broken bone becomes inflamed.

In open fractures there is a wound and hemorrhage. The edges of the broken bone can be seen through the wound.

Bone dislocation

This occurs when the bones leave the joints. On palpation, you will notice that the joint is dislocated.

Bone dislocation

Fracture Treatment

In the case of large animals, avoid moving and turn to the veterinarian. This may decide the sacrifice of the animal.

Fractures of the limbs usually occur in small and young animals. They can be cured. You can go to the vet and if he could not help you ask the health worker or "fix bones" of the community that helps you splint the broken limb. Sometimes you can put dislocated bones in place if someone helps you.

The bulges deduced from the skin can occur in any region of the body. Bulges may grow and increase in size or stop growing.

Some are hot and painful, others contain pus (yellowish material) or blood.

Objectives of this lesson

Studying this lesson you will know:

1. What are abscesses.
2. Lymph node abscesses.
3. How to treat abscesses.
4. Blood bulges that form under the skin.
5. What are hard lumps under the skin.

Abscesses (bulges of pus)

Abscess means infection under the skin. Abscesses under the skin appear swollen, red and painful, may contain pus (yellowish material).

Abscesses may be due to germs that are located under the skin due to:

• Bites from other animals or insects such as ticks and flies.
• Cutting objects, such as thorns and nails that pierce the skin.
• Injections or vaccinations performed with dirty needles.
• Diseases that cause abscesses. Lymph nodes can form abscesses in certain diseases (see Lesson 3).

Lymph node abscess (swallows)

The lymph nodes of animals are similar to those of people under the lower jaw and in the armpits. When an animal is infected, its lymph nodes usually swell and can be felt as lumps under the skin. In certain diseases, these bulges become abscesses.

Lymph node abscess (swallows)

Abscess treatment

Some abscesses open and pus comes out. It may be necessary to open an abscess which will be done when it is soft. To do so quickly, proceed as follows:

• Clean the abscess and the surrounding area with soap and water. Nail a clean needle in the abscess. If blood leaks, keep it at another point in the abscess. If the puncture comes out of pus, remove the needle and with a knife, razor blade or scalpel clean and sharp, make a small hole in the skin that covers the bag of pus. Then cut the skin down and let the pus out of the abscess.
• When all pus has been removed, the abscess is treated as a wound (see Lesson 73).
• If the abscess is not "ripe" to be opened, soak a cloth in hot water and place it on the abscess, leaving it for 10 minutes at a time. You should repeat this operation 4 times a day for a few days, until the bulge grows and softens enough to open.

Pus contains germs. You should clean the abscess by removing and collecting the pus on a piece of paper or cloth and burning it later. Wash the skin around the abscess. Then wash your hands and disinfect all needles and instruments used.

When the abscesses are very deep under the skin, they do not burst and the animal has a fever. You should turn to the veterinarian. If you cannot find the veterinarian to help you, give the animal by mouth, or by injection, antibiotics or sulfa drugs for three days (see R6, R7, R9, R10, Annex 1).

Do not open lymph node abscesses, give the animals an antibiotic or a sulfa drug for three days to cure the infection.

Blood lumps under the skin (bruises)

They are because the animal has been cooked or beaten. The bulge is soft and is not hot or sore, and disappears in 2-3 weeks.

Do not hit the animals or try to lift them by holding them by the skin, as it will cause bruising. If you sell the animals to a slaughterhouse, these bulges will be seen in the flesh as red-bluish areas.

These are lumps that are not hot like abscesses, or soft like bruises. Solid bulges can continually increase in size or stop growing after a certain time. You should turn to the veterinarian when an animal presents this type of bulge.

Mumps of the horses

These are abscesses of the lymph nodes of the lower jaw of foals, mules and young donkeys. The animals have high temperature (fever), an abscess under the lower jaw and remove a thick and creamy mucus from the nose. You should isolate the sick animal and tell the veterinarian to open the abscess. Once open, the animal is treated with antibiotics.

Mumps of the horses

It involves obsessed lymph nodes in the lower jaw of foals, mules and young asses. The animals have high temperature (fever), an abscess under the lower jaw and remove a thick and creamy muscosity from the nose. You should isolate the sick animal and tell the veterinarian to open the abscess. Once opened, the animal is treated with antibiotics.